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Social Justice: "Arab Spring"

Uprisings against Human Rights Abuses

Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Syria, Yemen and Bahrain

Amnesty International; Human Rights Watch; US State Dept.; and the United Nations all have information about uprisings in these Arab countries.



Hosni Mubarak served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. He was appointed Vice President in 1975, and assumed the presidency  following the assassination of President Anwar El Sadat. Mass protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian cities on 25 January 2011.  [Wikipedia]


Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi ruled Libya from 1969-2011.


Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was the second President of the Tunisian Republic. He held the office from 7 November 1987, until he was forced to step down and flee the country on 14 January 2011. [Wikipedia]


Middle East and Northern Africa Region 



Bashar al-Assad is the President of Syria and Regional Secretary of the Ba'ath Party. His father Hafez al-Assad ruled Syria for 29 years until his death. Al-Assad was elected in 2000 and 2007, but was unopposed each time. [Wikipedia]

Map of Syria

Human Rights


President Ali Abdullah Saleh ruled Yemen for 33 years before his control was threatened by mass protests set off by the January 2011 revolution in Tunisia. [NY Times]


King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa born 28 January 1950, Riffa, Bahrain, is the King of Bahrain (since 14 February 2002), having previously been its emir (from 6 March 1999).[ [Wikipedia]