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HON 499: Spring 2016 Professor Moon's Library Instruction (Dr. Duncan): YW

Searching the Catalog for Articles (Bullets AND Projectiles)

Firearms, bullets, and wound ballistics: an imaging primer.

Author: TN Hanna Affiliation: Division of Emergency Radiology, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: tarek.hanna@emory.edu.; W Shuaib Affiliation: Division of Emergency Radiology, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: Waqas.shuaib@emory.edu.; T Han Affiliation: Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.; A Mehta Affiliation: Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.; F Khosa Affiliation: Division of Emergency Radiology, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.
Edition/Format: Article Article : English
Publication: Injury, 2015 Jul; 46(7): 1186-96
  Peer-reviewed
Database: From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Summary:
Based on its intrinsic mass and velocity, a bullet has an upper limit of wounding potential. Actual wound severity is a function of the bullet construction and trajectory, as well as the properties of the tissues traversed. Interpreting physicians must evaluate the bullet trajectory and describe patterns of injury resulting from the effect of energy transfer from the projectile into living tissue. A basic understanding of firearms, projectiles, and wound ballistics can help the interpreting physicians in conceptualizing these injuries and interpreting these cases.  Read less

A Calculation of the Theoretical Significance of Matched Bullets

Author: David Howitt Affiliation: Graduate Program in Forensic Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.; Fred Tulleners Affiliation: Graduate Program in Forensic Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.; Karen Cebra Affiliation: Graduate Program in Forensic Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.; Shiahn Chen Affiliation: Graduate Program in Forensic Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Edition/Format: Article Article : English
Publication: Journal of Forensic Sciences, v53 n4 (July 2008): 868-875
  Peer-reviewed
Database: Wiley Online Library
Other Databases: ArticleFirstBritish Library SerialsECOMEDLINEElsevier
Summary:
Abstract:  The comparison and identification of bullets from the striations that appear on their surfaces, after they have been fired from a gun, have been practiced since the 1920s. Although the significance of the correspondences of these impression marks has been empirically justified, there is a conspicuous absence of any theoretical foundation for the likelihood. What is presented here is the derivation of the formulae for calculating the probability for the correspondence of the impression marks on a subject bullet to a random distribution of a similar number of impression marks on a suspect bullet of the same type. The approach to the calculation entails subdividing the impression marks into a series of individual lines having widths equal to the separation distance at which a misalignment of striations between the two bullets cannot be distinguished. This distance depends upon the resolution limit imposed by the microscope as well as by the visual acuity of the examiner. A calculation of the probabilities for finding pairs and triplets of consecutively matching lines on nonmatching bullets, by an examiner with normal perception using a microscope at 40× magnification, produces values that agree well with the empirical probabilities determined by Biasotti in the 1950s and when determined for larger consecutive sequences suggest that they are extremely unlikely to occur. The formulae can be used to determine the probabilities for the random occurrence of any sequence of striae and provide a straightforward way to quantitatively justify the significance of a specific match between any two bullets.

Automated bullet-identification system based on surface topography techniques

Author: F Xie Affiliation: Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK; S Xiao Affiliation: Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK; L Blunt Affiliation: Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK; W Zeng Affiliation: Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK; X Jiang Affiliation: Centre for Precision Technologies, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK
Edition/Format: Article Article : English
Publication: Wear, v266 n5-6 (20090315): 518-522
  Peer-reviewed
Database: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Summary:
Every firearm has individual characteristics that are as unique to it as fingerprints are to human beings. When a firearm is fired, it transfers these characteristics - in the form of microscopic scratches and dents - to the fired bullets and cartridge casings. The rifling of the barrel of the firearm marks the bullets travelling through it, and the firearm's breech mechanism marks the ammunition's cartridge casing. Characterising these marks is the critical element in identifying firearms.
Traditionally the comparison of ballistic evidence has been a tedious and time-consuming process requiring highly skilled examiners. In the past decade, engineers have created automated ballistics identification systems that meld traditional comparison microscopes with digital cameras, computers, huge databases, and image analysis techniques. This kind of system can help investigators to link crimes by automatically finding similarities among images of bullet but suffering significant drawbacks and minimal matching.
More recently, approaches based on 3D digital representations of evidence surface topography have started to appear, both in research and industrial products. Potentially the introduction of 3D surface topography measurement can overcome the limitations of digital imaging systems by making the bullet surface measurement reproducible and reliable. A 3D quantitative approach for bullet identification is proposed in this paper. In this system the surface topography of the whole bullet can be acquired for analysis and identification. Primary researches have been done by applying advanced surface topography techniques for bullet marks’ characteristics extraction. A variety of 2D and 3D visualization graphics have also been provided to help firearm examiners to make final decisions.
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