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School of Business Recommendations: APA Help

APA Citation Course

The International Institute for Public Safety offers a FREE course on APA citation. It incorporates the latest chnages for the 6th edition (2010). The author of this course is Robert Diemer, a faculty member at Saint Leo University's main campus.

What's new in the 6th edition? Check out this presentation from the American Psychological Association. The newest edition has expanded sections on Ethics, technology, protocols, etc.

Formatting your paper: APA

Headings

There are currently five levels of Headings in APA, 6th edition. Please refer to the manual for more information.

In-Text Citations

APA uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place.

When referencing or summarizing a source, provide the author and year. When quoting or summarizing a particular passage, include the specific page or paragraph number, as well.

When quoting in your paper, if a direct quote is less than 40 words , incorporate it into your text and use quotation marks.

However, when you are copying and directly quoting something that is more than 40 words , make the quotation a free-standing indented block of text and DO NOT use quotation marks.

Specific parts of one resource

As you write your paper or create your presentation, remember to give the page number or to otherwise indicate where you obtained your specific information. If you are using data/information from a specific table, chart, chapter, graph, or page in a book, you must indicate where the information came, in case your audience wishes to look it up. Here is how you woudl do it: In the 1880s, the sculpture was assumed to be by Michaelangelo (Powell, 1989, Chapter 6), but later analysis in the 1980s determined it to be a forgery (Murphy, 1999, p. 85).

If, as in the instance of online material, the source has neither any visible paragraph heading, or page number, cite the closest heading and the number of the paragraph following it. This allows the reader to locate the text in the source.

Authors! Pay attention to details!

When a work has 2 authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text. When a work has three to five authors cite all the author names the first time the reference occurs. Then subsequently include only the first author followed by et al.For example:

  • First citation: Masserton, Slonowski, and Slowinski (1989) state that...
  • Subsequent citations: Masserton et al. (1989) state that...
  • For 6 or more authors, cite only the name of the first author followed by et al and the year.

Can't locate Author information?

When a resource has no named author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title). Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or Web page. Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report. For example:

  • The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs ("Medical Miracles," 2009).
  • The brochure argues for homeschooling (Education Reform, 2011).

Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.

Bibliography

   Use EasyBib to organize your paper/project, create a bibliography/Works Cited page, and track resources. EasyBib is a free resource for students of Saint Leo University. You must first register in order to use it.Your Bibliography should include ALL resources referred to within your paper or presentation. It should be comprehensive enough so that your audience can locate all of the resources used to support your work. This can sometimes be difficult for website and other online resources, so it needs to be as complete and accurate as possible. The Purdue OWL website has a comprehensive list of various types of references and how to format them.

APA guides available

Tables & Figures

Visuals such as graphs and tables should used to assist in communication, not take up space in order to meet minimum page requirements. Use them carefully and wisely. A good discussion and excellent samples can be located at the OWL website.