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CRM 350: Criminal Justice Ethics (2022): Reflection Papers

Criminal Justice Ethics


Be sure and check with your professor regarding the types of resources you may use for this course.  The links provided on this page are considered scholarly sources, but your professor may require peer-reviewed journal articles.  If in doubt, ask your professor for clarification.  

Reflection Paper #1

Morality and Law

The relationship between morality and law is perhaps the fundamental issue in modern Western legal theory. 

Social Contract

Social contract theories hold that a social arrangement—a set of moral norms or political institutions—and its justification consist in agreement on its terms by those who participate in it. 

Morality Versus Law

From Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics

Laws are enacted by a legislature. Moreover, in a democracy, by virtue of laws passed by the duly elected representatives of the people, laws reflect the will of the citizenry, or at least this is so by the lights of the standard theory of representative democracy.


From Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice

Morality includes the principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior.

Reflection paper #2

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

From Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology

The most important human endeavor is the striving for morality in our actions. Our inner balance and even our very existence depend on it. 

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Reasoning

From Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy Through Adolescence

Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning is a theory positing six stages of moral development advanced by the American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987).

Kohlberg, Lawrence: Moral Development Theory

From Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory

Kohlberg, Lawrence

From Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics

Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–87) was a Jewish American psychologist born in Bronxville, New York. Specializing in research on moral education and reasoning, he is best known for his theory about stages of moral development, which first appeared in his 1958 dissertation. 

Reflection paper #3

Los Angeles Race Riots of 1992

From Encyclopedia of Race and Crime

King, Rodney (1965-)

From Encyclopedia of Race and Crime

Rodney Glen King is an African American male who made national headlines after four White Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers were unknowingly videotaped using excessive force against him. The videotape was aired by every major television network across America.

Police, Use of Violence/Excessive Force

From Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence

Police Use of Force

From Encyclopedia of Race and Crime

Police Brutality

This link will take you to Gale Opposing Viewpoints with almost 50 scholarly sources on this topic.  

Reflection Paper #4

Reflection Paper #5

Jury Selection and Behavior

From The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

Jury Selection

From Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics

In the U.S. criminal legal procedure, the voir dire process of selecting jury members has been the focus of intense scrutiny by those concerned about procedural fairness in the criminal justice system.

Jury Selection

From Encyclopedia of Race and Crime

The jury selection process is one of the most important components in the American criminal justice system; however, it has been questioned whether court participants receive a fair trial under the present process.

from Handbook of Forensic Psychology: Resource for Mental Health and Legal Professionals

Jury consultants are often engaged well before trial to evaluate the jury pool, for one of two purposes—either to support remedies for pretrial publicity (such as a change of venue (location) for the trial), or to support a composition challenge (a challenge to the racial/demographic composition of the venire). In effect, the trial consultant is asked to aid with determination of the entire jury venue or venire prior to selection of individual jurors.

Reflection Paper #6


From Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment

Capital Punishment

From 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook

Capital Punishment

This link will take you to Gale Opposing Viewpoints with many articles on the topic.  

Reflection Paper #7


From Big Ideas Simply Explained: The Psychology Book

Correctional Psychology

From Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology


From Dictionary of Prisons and Punishment

The Stanford Prison Experiment was conducted in 1971 by a group of Stanford University research psychologists.

Prison Corruption

From Encyclopedia of Criminal Justice Ethics